Literature on Stirling Engines
Program with abstracts of presentations of the 16th International Stirling Engine Conference, Sep 24-26, 2014, Bilbao, Spain
49 pages, most of it filled with the abstracts. Couldn/t find anything related to the full-text versions.

Optimum Stirling Engine Geometry, James R. Senft, 2002. International Journal of Energy Research, Int. J. Energy Res. 202; 26; 1087-1101
Very nice work, Shows tricky influence of the effectiveness of the mechanical drive mechanism including the energy exchange between power piston and flywheel. This has an important influence on the optimum choice for the ratio of piston to displacer swept volume ratio and angle by which the displacer piston motion leads the power piston.(I have hard-copy and some hand-written notes)

A review of solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines, Kongtragool Wongwise, 2003.Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 7 (2003) 131-154
Offical abstract: This article provides a literature review on solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines technology. A number of research works on the development of Stirling engines, solar-powered Stirling engines, and low temperature differential Stirling engines is discussed. The aim of this review is to find a feasible solution which may lead to a preliminary conceptual design of a workable solar-powered low temperature differential Stirling engine. Results from the study indicate that Stirling engines working with relatively low temperature air are potentially attractive engines of the future, especially solar-powered low temperature differential Stirling engines with vertical, double-acting, gamma-configuration. 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
But the article is available on the web if you are member of an appropriate academic institution.

Active Stirling Engine, Gopal, V. Duke, R. Clucas, D., 2009 Singapore: TENCON 2009: IEEE Region 10 Conference, 23-26 Nov 2009
Official abstract : In this paper the WhisperGen micro combined heat and power (microCHP) system, its advantages, control and possible scope for improvement are explored. Concept of active Stirling engine (ASE) is introduced. A test rig designed to test possible improvements of the efficiency and controllability of a kinematic Stirling engine based microCHP system is explained."
My take: a) High temperature machine using waste heat as heat source to home, etc,i b) Modifying displacer motion to achieve larger dwell times (up to 33%) at the two extreme positions in order to increase ∫ p dV.
Have hard copy, but also available on the web

A new isothermal theory for Stirling machine analysis and a volume optimization using the concept of ‘ancillary’ and ‘tidal’ domains, T Finkelstein, 1998 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1998 212: 225
Abstract: Theoretical studies of Stirling cycle machines have always utilized a topological system view that goes back to Schmidt’s isothermal analysis, where the process is analysed by reference to the expansion space volume variations. Due to this idiosyncrasy in the formulation, it has been difficult to deduce meaningful design criteria from the results. In this paper an alternative visualization is presented, using the newly introduced concepts of a ‘tidal phase angle’ and overlapping ‘tidal’ and ‘ancillary’ domains. With vectorial parameters and a centralized reference basis, a non-dimensional parameter Rtcr, the ‘tidal compression ratio’, equal to the ratio of the average masses in the tidal and ancillary domains, is derived. This number uniquely characterizes the operation of equivalent machines and is therefore akin to the compression ratio in internal combustion engines. On the basis of this, a second new parametric grouping emerged to enhance the usefulness of the resultant integrated equations for use with dimensional analysis. It was defined as the ‘specific performance’ Nsp and is proportional to the output per unit mass, the gas constant and the operating temperature range. It is applicable to engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Prior attempts at optimizing the proportions of a Stirling engine have not yielded usable results and consequently nearly all Stirling cycle machines built up to the present time have expansion and compression spaces of equal size. The new analysis shows that this is not the most appropriate configuration and it readily yields an optimization of the component volumes. One single analytical conditional equation for the optimum relative sizes of the constituent spaces was obtained from the new formulation for performance that quantifies the condition for an optimized proportioning of any Stirling cycle machine. It has three distinct usable solutions, one of which is an analytical confirmation of a postulate that has previously been published by the author without proof, equating VE/VC and also Vh/Vk to the temperature ratio TE/TC. A numerical verification of this rule based on the proportions of the United Stirling V-160 engine compares it with 12 equivalent re-proportioned derivative engines, all with equal charge masses and operating at precisely the same conditions. This shows a substantial increase in the ideal performance through the use of the derived criteria. The main conclusion is that this theory may lead to a re-examination of the overall layout of Stirling cycle machines and the emergence of a new class of machines with superior performance.
On page 9/13 (Table 1) we find some data on the United Stirling V-160 engine which is an alpha-type engine : VE = 159.8 Vh=71.2 Vr=83.8 Vk=96.9 VC=159.8 Te=993 Tc=288 cm³ Pm=1.25*10^7 Pa = 125*10^5Pa = 125 atm
He introduces the variation of the volume of the expansion space as VE/2*cos(Φ+A) and that of the compression space as VC/2*cos(Φ-A) where 2*A = traditional phase lag angle.i (see his Eq.(1))
Comparing his Eq.(6) and (8) shows clearly that Finkelstein is somewhat loose with his symbols. In (6) he uses Ve and in (8) VE to describe the volume variation of the expansion space. Same holds true for the expansion space.
There is no mention of the clearance volumes (= minimum volume of the compression and expansion space and connecting space for gamma-type)
This article is available on the on the web if you are member of an appropriate academic institution.

This is a nice account of the development towards the V4X36 automobile engine. It was road-tested for about 10000 km in a 1974 Ford Taunus. This engine was used in a 50’ies Porsche Bergspider racing car with a top speed of 200 km/hour. A prior engine, the V4X31 installed in a Ford Pinto, was probably the first direct-driven Stirling engine car in the world.
This article is available at

Characterization of the power and efficiency of Stirling engine subsystems, D. García a, M.A. González a, J.I. Prieto a,⇑, S. Herrero b, S. López b, I. Mesonero b, C. Villasante.Applied Energy 121 (2014) 51–63

To browse further go to National Technical Information Service and look there for "search Library" with keyphrase "stirling AND engine".
  1. Stirling Engine Design Manual , 2nd edition William R. Martini
    Jan 1983 NASA-CR-158088 (or 168088 ?)
    abstract(html) ; full paper(local pdf, 412 pages) ;
    original at

  2. Numerical Prediction of Turbulent Oscillating Flow and Associated Heat Transfer. - Final Report. W. J. Koehler, S. V. Patankar, W. E. Ibele,
    Aug 1991 NASA-CR-187177
    abstract(html) ; full paper(local pdf, 250 pages) ;
    Results on oscillating flow start on page 137 (acroread) with the investigation of transition to laminar. They compare their own experimental data to the numerical predictions. Conclusions about the oscillating flow are on pdf-page 194. Heat transfer start at p 196 with conclusion on p 202.
    "For Remax numbers above 105, the steady state correlations for the fully developed friction coefficient and Nu number apply well. For lower Remax numbers, the departures become larger with decreasing Remax and increasing Va.

  3. NASA: Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch, thermodynamic losses and heat transfer
    A bibliography pertaining to : During the development of Stirling engines for space applications, a number of grants and contracts were established for the purpose of improving the characterization of Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and improving Stirling code accuracy. The references in the bibliography shown below report on work that was done under these efforts.
    full paper(NASA html)

  4. NASA: Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch,Stirling Performance Codes
    full paper(NASA html)

  5. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.
    Feb 1997 NASA-CR-190780
    abstract(html) ; full paper(local pdf, 172 pages)

  6. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development , T. R. Mancini
    1998 European Stirling Forum, Osnabruck (Germany), 24-26 Feb 1998. Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
    abstract(html) ; full paper(local pdf, 10 pages)

  7. Stirling Space Engine Program; Final Report
    VOL 1 (local pdf, 202 pages)
    VOL 2(Appendices) (local pdf, 418 pages)
    1999 NASA/CR-1999-209164/VOL1 and NASA/CR-1999-209164/VOL2, respectively.

  8. Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort
    full paper (local pdf, 14 pages)
    2002 NASA/TM-2002-211997

  9. Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Converter Code Development and Validation Effort R.C. Tew, J.E. Carielli, M.B. Ibrahim, T. W. Simon, D.Gideon,
    Dec. 2002 NASA/TM-2002-211997
    abstract(html) ; full paper(local pdf, 14 pages) ;

  10. Developing and testing low cost LTD Stirling engines" (pdf) G. Aragon-Gonzalez , M. Cano-Blanco, A. Canales-Palma, and A. Leon-Galicia; THERMODYNAMICS Revista Mexicana de Fisica S 59 (1) 199-203 FEBRUARY 2013;
    Nice work on Ringbom LTD engines, but no design specifications given.

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Last revised: 01/08/15