|Literature on Stirling Engines|
To browse further go to National Technical Information
Service and look there for "search Library" with keyphrase
"stirling AND engine".
- Program with abstracts of presentations of the 16th International Stirling Engine Conference, Sep 24-26, 2014, Bilbao, Spain
- 49 pages, most of it filled with the abstracts. Couldn/t find anything
related to the full-text versions.
- Optimum Stirling Engine Geometry, James R. Senft, 2002. International Journal of Energy Research, Int. J. Energy Res. 202; 26; 1087-1101
- Very nice work, Shows tricky influence of the effectiveness of the
mechanical drive mechanism including the energy exchange between power piston
and flywheel. This has an important influence on the optimum choice
for the ratio of piston to displacer swept volume ratio and angle by which the
displacer piston motion leads the power piston.(I have hard-copy and some
- A review of solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature
differential Stirling engines, Kongtragool Wongwise, 2003.Renewable &
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 7 (2003) 131-154
- Offical abstract:
This article provides a literature review on solar-powered Stirling
engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines technology.
A number of research works on the development of Stirling engines,
solar-powered Stirling engines, and low temperature differential Stirling
engines is discussed. The aim of this review is to find a feasible
solution which may lead to a preliminary conceptual design of a workable
solar-powered low temperature differential Stirling engine.
Results from the study indicate that Stirling engines working with
relatively low temperature air are potentially attractive engines
of the future, especially solar-powered low temperature
differential Stirling engines with vertical, double-acting,
2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
article is available
on the web if you are member of an appropriate academic institution.
- Active Stirling Engine, Gopal, V. Duke, R. Clucas, D., 2009
Singapore: TENCON 2009: IEEE Region 10 Conference, 23-26 Nov 2009
- Official abstract : In this paper the WhisperGen micro combined heat and power (microCHP) system, its advantages, control and possible scope for improvement are explored. Concept of active Stirling engine (ASE) is introduced. A test rig designed to test possible improvements of the efficiency and controllability of a kinematic Stirling engine based microCHP system is explained."
My take: a) High temperature machine using waste heat as heat source to home, etc,i b) Modifying displacer motion to achieve larger dwell times (up to 33%) at
the two extreme positions in order to increase ∫ p dV.
Have hard copy, but also available
on the web
- A new isothermal theory for Stirling machine analysis
and a volume optimization using the concept of
‘ancillary’ and ‘tidal’ domains, T Finkelstein, 1998
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal
of Mechanical Engineering Science 1998 212: 225
Theoretical studies of Stirling cycle machines have always utilized a topological system
view that goes back to Schmidt’s isothermal analysis, where the process is analysed by reference to
the expansion space volume variations. Due to this idiosyncrasy in the formulation, it has been
difficult to deduce meaningful design criteria from the results. In this paper an alternative visualization
is presented, using the newly introduced concepts of a ‘tidal phase angle’ and overlapping ‘tidal’ and
‘ancillary’ domains. With vectorial parameters and a centralized reference basis, a non-dimensional
parameter Rtcr, the ‘tidal compression ratio’, equal to the ratio of the average masses in the tidal and
ancillary domains, is derived. This number uniquely characterizes the operation of equivalent
machines and is therefore akin to the compression ratio in internal combustion engines. On the basis
of this, a second new parametric grouping emerged to enhance the usefulness of the resultant integrated
equations for use with dimensional analysis. It was defined as the ‘specific performance’ Nsp
and is proportional to the output per unit mass, the gas constant and the operating temperature
range. It is applicable to engines, heat pumps and refrigerators.
Prior attempts at optimizing the proportions of a Stirling engine have not yielded usable results
and consequently nearly all Stirling cycle machines built up to the present time have expansion and
compression spaces of equal size. The new analysis shows that this is not the most appropriate
configuration and it readily yields an optimization of the component volumes. One single analytical
conditional equation for the optimum relative sizes of the constituent spaces was obtained from the
new formulation for performance that quantifies the condition for an optimized proportioning of
any Stirling cycle machine. It has three distinct usable solutions, one of which is an analytical confirmation
of a postulate that has previously been published by the author without proof, equating
VE/VC and also Vh/Vk to the temperature ratio TE/TC.
A numerical verification of this rule based on the proportions of the United Stirling V-160 engine
compares it with 12 equivalent re-proportioned derivative engines, all with equal charge masses and
operating at precisely the same conditions. This shows a substantial increase in the ideal performance
through the use of the derived criteria. The main conclusion is that this theory may lead to a
re-examination of the overall layout of Stirling cycle machines and the emergence of a new class of
machines with superior performance.
On page 9/13 (Table 1) we find some data on the United Stirling V-160 engine
which is an alpha-type engine :
VE = 159.8 Vh=71.2 Vr=83.8 Vk=96.9 VC=159.8 Te=993 Tc=288 cm³ Pm=1.25*10^7
Pa = 125*10^5Pa = 125 atm
He introduces the variation of the volume of the expansion space as
VE/2*cos(Φ+A) and that of the compression space as
VC/2*cos(Φ-A) where 2*A = traditional phase lag angle.i (see his Eq.(1))
Comparing his Eq.(6) and (8) shows clearly that Finkelstein is somewhat
loose with his symbols. In (6) he uses Ve and in (8) VE
to describe the volume variation of the expansion space. Same holds true
for the expansion space.
There is no mention of the clearance volumes (= minimum volume of the
compression and expansion space and connecting space for gamma-type)
This article is available on the
on the web
if you are member of an appropriate academic institution.
- THE EXPERIMENTAL V4X STIRLING ENGINE – A PIONEERING DEVELOPMENT, Professor Gunnar Lundholm, 2004
- This is a nice account of the development towards the V4X36 automobile
engine. It was road-tested for about 10000 km in a 1974 Ford Taunus. This engine was used in a 50’ies Porsche Bergspider racing car
with a top speed of 200 km/hour. A prior engine, the V4X31 installed in a
Ford Pinto, was probably the first direct-driven Stirling engine car in
This article is available at http://energychallenge.com/ST_TA2_1.pdf
- Characterization of the power and efficiency of Stirling engine
subsystems, D. García a, M.A. González a, J.I. Prieto a,⇑, S. Herrero b, S. López b, I. Mesonero b, C. Villasante.Applied Energy 121 (2014) 51–63
Stirling Engine Design Manual , 2nd edition
William R. Martini
Jan 1983 NASA-CR-158088 (or 168088 ?)
full paper(local pdf, 412 pages) ;
Numerical Prediction of Turbulent Oscillating Flow and Associated Heat
Transfer. - Final Report. W. J. Koehler, S. V. Patankar,
W. E. Ibele,
Aug 1991 NASA-CR-187177
full paper(local pdf, 250 pages) ;
Results on oscillating flow start on page 137 (acroread) with the investigation
of transition to laminar. They compare their own experimental data to the
numerical predictions. Conclusions about the oscillating flow are on pdf-page
194. Heat transfer start at p 196 with conclusion on p 202.
"For Remax numbers above 105, the steady state correlations
for the fully developed friction coefficient and Nu number apply well.
For lower Remax numbers, the
departures become larger with decreasing Remax and increasing Va.
NASA: Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch, thermodynamic losses and heat
A bibliography pertaining to :
During the development of Stirling engines for space applications, a number of grants and contracts were established for the purpose of improving the characterization of Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and improving Stirling code accuracy. The references in the bibliography shown below report on work that was done under these efforts.
full paper(NASA html)
NASA: Thermo-Mechanical Systems Branch,Stirling Performance Codes
full paper(NASA html)
Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.
Feb 1997 NASA-CR-190780
full paper(local pdf, 172 pages)
Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System
Development , T. R. Mancini
1998 European Stirling Forum,
Osnabruck (Germany), 24-26 Feb 1998. Sponsored by Department of Energy,
full paper(local pdf, 10 pages)
Stirling Space Engine Program; Final Report
VOL 1 (local pdf, 202 pages)
VOL 2(Appendices) (local pdf, 418 pages)
1999 NASA/CR-1999-209164/VOL1 and NASA/CR-1999-209164/VOL2, respectively.
Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development
and Validation Effort
full paper (local pdf, 14 pages)
Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Converter Code Development
and Validation Effort
R.C. Tew, J.E. Carielli, M.B. Ibrahim, T. W. Simon, D.Gideon,
Dec. 2002 NASA/TM-2002-211997
full paper(local pdf, 14 pages) ;
Developing and testing
low cost LTD Stirling engines" (pdf) G. Aragon-Gonzalez ,
M. Cano-Blanco, A. Canales-Palma, and A. Leon-Galicia;
THERMODYNAMICS Revista Mexicana de Fisica S 59 (1) 199-203 FEBRUARY 2013;
Nice work on Ringbom LTD engines, but no design specifications given.